We investigate quantum aspects of the SO(10) Grand Unified Theory with a scalar sector of $\mathbf{45} \oplus \mathbf{126} \oplus \mathbf{10}_\mathbb{C}$, a candidate for physics beyond the Standard Model. By analyzing one-loop scalar mass spectrum and scalar beta functions, criteria are formulated for viable parameter spaces, focusing on vacuum stability, gauge coupling unification, and perturbative robustness. Only narrow parameter space regions around symmetry breaking chains with SU(4)_C x SU(2)_L x U(1)_R or SU(3)_c x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_{B-L} intermediate stages are demonstrated to be potentially realistic. Proton decay rates are calculated for selected channels with antineutrinos in the final states. Finally, a detailed examination of the model reveals challenges in accommodating a Standard-Model-like Higgs boson within perturbatively stable parameter spaces, highlighting the role of perturbativity in constraining the theory.